Basis of preparation
These financial statements are prepared on the going concern basis, under the historical cost convention, as modified by the revaluation of fixed asset investments and financial assets and financial liabilities (including derivative instruments) at fair value through profit or loss, and in accordance with the Companies Act 2006 and applicable accounting standards in the United Kingdom. The principal accounting policies, which have been applied consistently throughout the year, are set out below.
The Company’s financial statements have been prepared in compliance with Section 394 and 396 of the Companies Act 2006 adopting the exemption of omitting the profit and loss account conferred by Section 408 of that Act.
Investment income includes dividends and interest. Dividends receivable from group companies are recognised in the period in which the dividends are declared and approved at the general meeting or paid. Interest income is recognised using the effective interest method.
Dividend distribution to the Company’s shareholders is recognised as a liability in the period in which the dividends are authorised and are no longer at the discretion of the Company. Final dividends are accrued when approved by the Company’s shareholders at a general meeting and interim dividends are recognised when paid.
Interest expense reflects the underlying cost of borrowing, based on the effective interest method, and includes payments and receipts made under derivative instruments which are amortised over the interest period to which they relate.
Investment in subsidiary undertakings
Shares in subsidiary undertakings are stated at current value. Unrealised gains or losses arising on investments in subsidiary undertakings are taken to the revaluation reserve.
Loans and receivables
Loans and receivables are held at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting
The Company’s activities expose it to the financial risks of changes in foreign exchange rates and interest rates. The Company uses derivatives such as foreign exchange forward contracts and interest rate swap contracts to hedge these exposures. The Company uses hedge accounting, provided the prescribed criteria are met, to recognise the offsetting effects of changes in the fair value or cash flow of the derivative instrument and the hedged item. The Company’s principal use of hedge accounting is to hedge the fair value movements in loans due to interest rate and exchange rate fluctuations. Any gain or loss from remeasuring the hedging instrument at fair value is recognised immediately in the profit and loss account. Any gain or loss on the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk is adjusted against the carrying amount of the hedged item and recognised in the profit and loss account.
Certain derivative instruments do not qualify for hedge accounting. Changes in the fair value of any derivative instruments which do not qualify for hedge accounting are recognised immediately in the profit and loss account.
Borrowings are recognised initially at fair value, net of transaction costs. Borrowings classified as liabilities are subsequently stated at amortised cost. The difference between the net proceeds and the redemption value is recognised in the profit and loss account over the borrowing period using the effective interest method.
Deferred tax is recognised in respect of all timing differences that have originated but not reversed at the balance sheet date, where transactions or events that result in an obligation to pay more tax in the future or a right to pay less tax in the future have occurred at the balance sheet date.
A net deferred tax asset is recognised as recoverable and therefore recognised only when, on the basis of all available evidence, it can be regarded as more likely than not that there will be suitable taxable profits against which to recover carried forward tax losses and from which the future reversal of underlying timing differences can be deducted.
Deferred tax is measured at the average tax rates that are expected to apply in the periods in which the timing differences are expected to reverse, based on tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date. Deferred tax is measured on an undiscounted basis.
Deferred tax is recognised in respect of the retained earnings of overseas subsidiaries only to the extent that, at the balance sheet date, dividends have been accrued as receivable or a binding agreement to distribute past earnings in future periods has been entered into by the subsidiary.
Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are translated into sterling at the rates of exchange prevailing at the time of the transactions. Monetary assets and liabilities expressed in foreign currencies are translated into sterling at the rates of exchange ruling at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary items are maintained at historic rates. Exchange gains or losses are recognised in the profit and loss account, except those arising upon the revaluation of fixed assets, which are included in the revaluation reserve.
The Company participates in multi-employer defined benefit schemes, within the meaning of FRS 17, ‘Retirement Benefits’, which, as its share of the underlying assets and liabilities cannot be identified, have been treated for reporting purposes as defined contribution schemes. In addition to these schemes the Company also contributes to defined contribution schemes. The Company charges the costs of its pension schemes against profit as incurred. Any difference between the cumulative amounts charged against profits and contribution amounts paid is included as a provision or prepayment in the balance sheet.
The assets of the defined benefit schemes and the defined contribution schemes are held in separate trustee administered funds, which have been subject to regular valuation every three years and updated by formal reviews at reporting dates by qualified actuaries who were employees of the Group.
Related Party Transactions
The Company has taken advantage of the exemptions of FRS 8, ‘Related Party Transactions’, not to disclose transactions with other group companies.
The Company operates a number of share-based payment plans on behalf of its subsidiaries. The fair value of the equity instruments granted is spread over the vesting period of the instrument and treated as a capital contribution to the respective subsidiary. The total capital contribution is determined by reference to the fair value of the awards, excluding the impact of any non-market vesting conditions. The capital contribution to the subsidiaries is accounted for as an increase in the investment in the parent company’s financial statements.
At each balance sheet date, the Company revises its estimate of the number of equity instruments which are expected to become exercisable. It recognises the impact of the revision of original estimate, if any, in the cost of the investment in the subsidiary and a corresponding adjustment is made to equity over the remaining vesting period. On vesting or exercise, the difference between the accumulated capital contribution and the actual cost to the Company is transferred to retained earnings. Where new shares are issued, the proceeds received are credited to share capital and share premium. Any capital contribution is subsequently recharged to the respective subsidiary as incurred and the corresponding cost of investment is reduced.
The Company has taken advantage of the exemptions provided in FRS 29, ‘Financial Instruments: Disclosures’, which states that disclosure of financial instruments is not required in parent company financial statements where these are included in publicly available Consolidated Financial Statements.