Basis of preparation
The supplementary financial information has been prepared in accordance with the European Embedded Value (EEV) Principles issued in May 2004 by the European Insurance CFO Forum.
The supplementary financial information has been reviewed by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP and prepared with assistance from our consulting actuary Milliman in the USA.
Changes to accounting policy – IASB consolidation project
On 1 January 2014 the application of IFRS 10, ‘Consolidated Financial Statements’ became compulsory for entities reporting in the EU.
IFRS 10, ‘Consolidated Financial Statements’ defines the principal of control and establishes control as the basis for determining which entities are consolidated in the consolidated financial statements. This states that an investor controls an investee when it is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee. The application of IFRS 10 has resulted in the group consolidating a small number of investment vehicles which were not previously consolidated which impacted the gain attributable to non-controlling interests.
As a result, the prior year disclosure in the group embedded value summary and Note 6 have been restated to reflect the adoption by the group of IFRS 10, ‘Consolidated Financial Statements’. The effect on amounts previously reported at 31 December 2013 is shown below. Embedded value at 31 December 2013 remains unaffected by the adoption.
Profit for the year as previously reported (after tax)
Gains on non-controlling interests
IFRS 10 ‘Consolidated Financial Statements’ amendment
Revised profit for the year (after tax)
The group uses EEV methodology to value individual and group life assurance, pensions and annuity business written in the UK, Europe and the US. The UK covered business also includes non-insured self invested personal pension (SIPP) business.
The managed pension funds business has been excluded from covered business and is reported on an IFRS basis.
All other businesses are accounted for on the IFRS basis adopted in the primary financial statements.
There is no distinction made between insurance and investment contracts in our covered business as there is under IFRS.
Description of methodology
The objective of EEV is to provide shareholders with realistic information on the financial position and current performance of the group.
The methodology requires assets of an insurance company, as reported in the primary financial statements, to be attributed between those supporting the covered business and the remainder. The method accounts for assets in the covered business on an EEV basis and the remainder of the group’s assets on the IFRS basis adopted in the primary financial statements.
The EEV methodology recognises profit from the covered business as the total of:
- cash transfers during the relevant period from the covered business to the remainder of the group’s assets; and
- the movement in the present value of future distributable profits to shareholders arising from the covered business over the relevant reporting period.
Shareholders’ equity on the EEV basis comprises the embedded value of the covered business plus the shareholders’ equity of other businesses, less the value included for purchased interests in long term business.
The embedded value is the sum of the shareholder net worth (SNW) and the value of the in-force business (VIF). SNW is defined as those amounts, within covered business (both within the long term fund and held outside the long term fund but used to support long term business), which are regarded either as required capital or which represent free surplus.
The VIF is the present value of future shareholder profits arising from the covered business, projected using best estimate assumptions, less an appropriate deduction for the cost of holding the required level of capital and the time value of financial options and guarantees (FOGs).
All services relating to the UK covered business are charged on a cost recovery basis, with the exception of investment management services provided to Legal & General Pensions Limited (LGPL) and to Legal & General Assurance Society Limited (LGAS). Profits arising on the provision of these services are valued on a look through basis.
As the EEV methodology incorporates the future capitalised cost of these internal investment management services, the equivalent IFRS profits have been removed from the investment management (LGIM) segment and are instead included in the results of the LGAS and LGR segments on an EEV basis.
The capitalised value of future profits emerging from internal investment management services are therefore included in the embedded value and new business contribution calculations for the LGAS and LGR segments. However, the historical profits which have emerged continue to be reported in the shareholders’ equity of the LGIM segment on an IFRS basis. Since the look through into service companies includes only future profits and losses, current intra-group profits or losses must be eliminated from the closing embedded value and in order to reconcile the profits arising in the financial period within each segment with the net assets on the opening and closing balance sheet, a transfer of IFRS profits for the period from the UK SNW is deemed to occur.
New business premiums reflect income arising from the sale of new contracts during the reporting period and any changes to existing contracts, which were not anticipated at the outset of the contract.
In-force business comprises previously written single premium, regular premium, recurrent single premium contracts and payments in relation to existing longevity insurance. Longevity insurance product comprises the exchange of a stream of fixed leg payments for a stream of floating payments, with the value of the income stream being the difference between the two legs. New business annual premiums have been excluded for longevity insurance due to the unpredictable deal flow from this type of business.
New business contribution arising from the new business premiums written during the reporting period has been calculated on the same economic and operating assumptions used in the embedded value at the end of the financial period. This has then been rolled forward to the end of the financial period using the risk discount rate applicable at the end of the reporting period.
The present value of future new business premiums (PVNBP) has been calculated and expressed at the point of sale. The PVNBP is equivalent to total single premiums plus the discounted value of regular premiums expected to be received over the term of the contracts using the same economic and operating assumptions used for the embedded value at the end of the financial period. The discounted value of longevity insurance regular premiums is calculated on a net of reinsurance basis to enable a more representative margin figure.
The new business margin is defined as new business contribution at the end of the reporting period divided by the PVNBP. The premium volumes and projection assumptions used to calculate the PVNBP are the same as those used to calculate new business contribution.
Intra-group reinsurance arrangements are in place between the US and UK businesses, and it is expected that these arrangements will be periodically extended to cover recent new business. LGA new business premiums and contribution reflect the group wide expected impact of LGA directly-written business.
Cash flow projections are determined using best estimate assumptions for each component of cash flow and for each policy group. Future economic and investment return assumptions are based on conditions at the end of the financial period. Future investment returns are projected by one of two methods. The first method is based on an assumed investment return attributed to assets at their market value. The second, which is used by LGA, where the investments of that subsidiary are substantially all fixed interest, projects the cash flows from the current portfolio of assets and assumes an investment return on reinvestment of surplus cash flows. The assumed discount and inflation rates are consistent with the investment return assumptions.
Detailed projection assumptions including mortality, morbidity, persistency and expenses reflect recent operating experience and are normally reviewed annually. Allowance is made for future improvements in annuitant mortality based on experience and externally published data. Favourable changes in operating experience are not anticipated until the improvement in experience has been observed.
All costs relating to the covered business, whether incurred in the covered business or elsewhere in the group, are allocated to that business. The expense assumptions used for the cash flow projections therefore include the full cost of servicing this business.
The projections take into account all tax which is expected to be paid, based on best estimate assumptions, applying current legislation and practice together with known future changes.
Allowance for risk
Aggregate risks within the covered business are allowed for through the following principal mechanisms:
- setting required capital levels with reference to both the group’s internal risk based capital models, and an assessment of the strength of regulatory reserves in the covered business;
- allowing explicitly for the time value of financial options and guarantees within the group’s products; and
- setting risk discount rates by deriving a group level risk margin to be applied consistently to local risk free rates.
Required capital and free surplus
Regulatory capital for the UK LGAS and LGR businesses is provided by assets backing the with-profits business or by the SNW. The SNW comprises all shareholders’ capital within Society, including those funds retained within the long term fund and the excess assets in LGPL (collectively Society shareholder capital).
Society shareholder capital is either required to cover EU solvency margin or is free surplus as its distribution to shareholders is not restricted.
For UK with-profits business, the required capital is covered by the surplus within the with-profits part of the fund and no effect is attributed to shareholders except for the burn-through cost, which is described later. This treatment is consistent with the Principles and Practices of Financial Management for this part of the fund.
For UK non profit business, the required capital will be maintained at no less than the level of the EU minimum solvency requirement. This level, together with the margins for adverse deviation in the regulatory reserves, is, in aggregate, in excess of internal capital targets assessed in conjunction with the Individual Capital Assessment (ICA) and the with-profits support account.
The initial strains relating to new non profit business, together with the related EU solvency margin, are supported by releases from existing non profit business and the Society shareholder capital. As a consequence, the writing of new business defers the release of capital to free surplus. The cost of holding required capital is defined as the difference between the value of the required capital and the present value of future releases of that capital. For new business, the cost of capital is taken as the difference in the value of that capital assuming it was available for release immediately and the present value of the future releases of that capital. As the investment return, net of tax, on that capital is less than the risk discount rate, there is a resulting cost of capital which is reflected in the value of new business.
For LGA, the Company Action Level (CAL) of capital has been treated as required capital for modelling purposes. The CAL is the regulatory capital level at which the company would have to take prescribed action, such as submission of plans to the State insurance regulator, but would be able to continue operating on the existing basis. The CAL is currently twice the level of capital at which the regulator is permitted to take control of the business.
For LGN, required capital has been set at 104% of EU minimum solvency margin for all products without FOGs. For those products with FOGs, capital of between 104% and 339% of the EU minimum solvency margin has been used. These capital requirements have been scaled up by a factor of 1.042 at the total level to ensure the total requirement meets the 160% Solvency I from the capital policy for the EEV, for the NBVA no scaling is applied. The level of capital has been determined using risk based capital techniques.
For LGF, 100% of EU minimum solvency margin has been used for EV modelling purposes for all products both with and without FOGs. The level of capital has been determined using risk based capital techniques.
The contribution from new business for our international businesses reflects an appropriate allowance for the cost of holding the required capital.
Financial options and guarantees
Under the EEV Principles an allowance for time value of FOGs is required where a financial option exists which is exercisable at the discretion of the policyholder. These types of option principally arise within the with-profits part of the fund and their time value is recognised within the with-profits burn-through cost described below. Additional financial options for non profit business exist only for a small amount of deferred annuity business where guaranteed early retirement and cash commutation terms apply when the policyholders choose their actual retirement date.
Further financial guarantees exist for non profit business, in relation to index-linked annuities where capped or collared restrictions apply. Due to the nature of these restrictions and the manner in which they vary depending on the prevailing inflation conditions, they are also treated as FOGs and a time value cost recognised accordingly.
The time value of FOGs has been calculated stochastically using a large number of real world economic scenarios derived from assumptions consistent with the deterministic EEV assumptions and allowing for appropriate management actions where applicable. The management action primarily relates to the setting of bonus rates. Future regular and terminal bonuses on participating business within the projections are set in a manner consistent with expected future returns available on assets deemed to back the policies within the stochastic scenarios.
In recognising the residual value of any projected surplus assets within the with-profits part of the fund in the deterministic projection, it is assumed that terminal bonuses are increased to exhaust all of the assets in the part of the fund over the future lifetime of the in-force with-profits policies. However, under stochastic modelling, there may be some extreme economic scenarios when the total projected assets within the with-profits part of the fund are insufficient to pay all projected policyholder claims and associated costs. The average additional shareholder cost arising from this shortfall has been included in the time value cost of financial options and guarantees and is referred to as the with-profits burn-through cost.
Economic scenarios have been used to assess the time value of the financial guarantees for non profit business by using the inflation rate generated in each scenario. The inflation rate used to project index-linked annuities will be constrained in certain real world scenarios, for example, where negative inflation occurs but the annuity payments do not reduce below pre-existing levels. The time value cost of FOGs allows for the projected average cost of these constrained payments for the index-linked annuities. It also allows for the small additional cost of the guaranteed early retirement and cash commutation terms for the minority of deferred annuity business where such guarantees have been written.
LGA FOGs relate to guaranteed minimum crediting rates and surrender values on a range of contracts, as well as impacts on no-lapse guarantees (NLG). The guaranteed surrender value of the contract is based on the accumulated value of the contract including accrued interest. The crediting rates are discretionary but related to the accounting income for the amortising bond portfolio. The majority of the guaranteed minimum crediting rates are between 3% and 4%. The assets backing these contracts are invested in US Dollar denominated fixed interest securities.
LGN separately provides for two types of guarantees: interest rate guarantees and maturity guarantees. Certain contracts provide an interest rate guarantee where there is a minimum crediting rate based on the higher of one year Euribor and the policy guarantee rate. This guarantee applies on a monthly basis. Certain other linked contracts provide a guaranteed minimum value at maturity where the maturity amount is the higher of the fund value and a guarantee amount. The fund values for both these contracts are invested in Euro denominated fixed interest securities.
For LGF, FOGs which have been separately provided for relate to guaranteed minimum crediting rates and surrender values on a range of contracts. The guaranteed surrender value of the contract is the accumulated value of the contract including accrued bonuses. The bonuses are based on the accounting income for the amortising bond portfolios plus income and releases from realised gains on any equity type investments. Policy liabilities equal guaranteed surrender values. In general, the guaranteed annual bonus rates are between 0% and 4.5%.
Risk free rate
The risk free rate is set to reflect both the pattern of the emerging profits under EEV and the relevant duration of the liabilities where backing assets reflect this assumption (e.g. equity returns). For the UK, it is set by reference to the gross redemption yield on the 15-year gilt index. For LGA, the risk free rate is the 10-year US Treasury effective yield, while the 10-year ECB AAA-rated Euro area central government bond par yield is used for LGN and LGF.
Risk discount rate
The risk discount rate (RDR) is a combination of the risk free rate and a risk margin, which reflects the residual risks inherent in the group’s covered businesses, after taking account of prudential margins in the statutory provisions, the required capital and the specific allowance for FOGs.
The risk margin has been determined based on an assessment of the group’s weighted average cost of capital (WACC). This assessment incorporates a beta for the group, which measures the correlation of movements in the group’s share price to movements in a relevant index. Beta values therefore allow for the market’s assessment of the risks inherent in the business relative to other companies in the chosen index.
The WACC is derived from the group’s cost of equity and debt, and the proportion of equity to debt in the group’s capital structure measured using market values. Each of these three parameters is forward looking, although informed by historic information and appropriate judgements where necessary. The cost of equity is calculated as the risk free rate plus the equity risk premium for the chosen index multiplied by the Company’s beta. Forward-looking or adjusted betas make allowance for the observed tendency for betas to revert to 1 and therefore a weighted average of the historic beta and 1 tends to be a better estimate of the Company’s beta for the future period. We have computed the WACC using an arithmetical average of forward-looking betas against the FTSE 100 index.
The cost of debt used in the WACC calculations takes account of the actual locked-in rates for our senior and subordinated long term debt. All debt interest attracts tax relief at a rate of 20.1% (2013: 20.1%).
Whilst the WACC approach is a relatively simple and transparent calculation to apply, subjectivity remains within a number of the assumptions. Management believes that the chosen margin, together with the levels of required capital, the inherent strength of the group’s regulatory reserves and the explicit deduction for the cost of options and guarantees, is appropriate to reflect the risks within the covered business.
Analysis of profit
Operating profit is identified at a level which reflects an assumed longer term level of investment return.
The contribution to operating profit in a period is attributed to four sources:
- New business;
- The management of in-force business;
- Development costs; and
- Return on shareholder net worth.
Further profit contributions arise from actual investment return differing from the assumed long term investment return (investment return variances), and from the effect of economic assumption changes. These are shown below operating profit.
The contribution from new business represents the value recognised at the end of each period from new business written in that period, after allowing for the actual cost of acquiring the business and of establishing the required technical provisions and reserves and after making allowance for the cost of capital. New business contributions are calculated using closing assumptions.
The contribution from in-force business is calculated using opening assumptions and comprises:
- expected return – the discount earned from the value of business in-force at the start of the year;
- experience variances – the variance in the actual experience over the reporting period from that assumed in the value of business in-force as at the start of the year; and
- operating assumption changes – the effects of changes in future assumptions, other than changes in economic assumptions from those used in valuing the business at the start of the year. These changes are made prospectively from the end of the period.
Development costs relate to investment in strategic systems and development capability.
The contribution from shareholder net worth comprises the increase in embedded value based on assumptions at the start of the year in respect of the expected investment return on the Society shareholder capital.
Further profit contributions arise from investment return variances and the effect of economic assumption changes.
Economic variances represent:
- the effect of actual investment performance and changes to investment policy on SNW and VIF business from that assumed at the beginning of the period; and
- the effect of changes in economic variables on SNW and VIF business from that assumed at the beginning of the period, which are beyond the control of management, including associated changes to valuation bases to the extent that they are reflected in revised assumptions.